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Liben Music Publishers




Shipping Questions

A: Domestic Orders

  • Why didn't I receive an e-mail confirmation about my order?
  • What happened to my music? I ordered it xxx weeks ago.
  • How long will it take my order to arrive?
  • I was charged an additional shipping charge for an incorrect address a month after I received my order at the correct address!
  • I live in Alaska (Hawaii, Puerto Rico). Why were my shipping charges higher than your usual domestic rates?
  • I ordered only one item. Why were my shipping charges so high?
  • B: International Orders

  • What happened to my music? I ordered it xxx weeks ago.
  • I was not home when my order arrived and it was returned to Liben. I was then charged again for shipping when it was sent to me a second time!
  • What International Shipping Classes do you use?
  • Shipping Speed.
  • What is the best way to ship to Canada?
  • Why were my shipping charges so high?
  • Why can't I have my packages sent via sea mail instead of air? Isn't it much less expensive?
  • Why do you require registered mail to ship to my country? It is so expensive!
  • How are customs fees and taxes handled? Do you take care of them?
  • Why don't you ship to my country?
  • C: Tips for both Domestic and International Orders

  • How can I save on shipping charges?
  • The Total Charges on my order did not match the amount my Credit Card was billed.
  • How to pay 3, 4 or even 5 times the list price for a single piece of music.
  • How to be both stylish and guarantee that your package will take longer than necessary to arrive.
  • D: Returns.

  • I received the wrong music. (or DVD or CD) Can I return it?
  • Paying for Orders

    A: Credit Cards

  • What credit cards do you accept?
  • Why was my credit card declined?
  • I am an International customer: The total for my order was $50.00. Why did my bank charge me $65.00?
  • Questions regarding Various editions

    A: Availability

  • What happened to (fill in the space)? I can't find it in your catalog anymore!
  • Why is (fill in the space) out of print? It's a great piece and should be available.
  • B: Recording (CDs, DVDs)

  • I would like to record one of your pieces. What do I have to do?
  • C: More Exotic Stuff

  • What's all this business about Solo and Orchestra Tuning?
  • Why don't some of the printed music samples match the actual layout of the editions themselves?
  • Why are some Duos available in score form and others in separate parts?
  • Questions regarding Orchestra Rentals

  • How do I order the score and parts for one of your orchestral works?
  • How do I order a perusal score for a work my orchestra is considering for performance?
  • How do you ship perusal scores?
  • Questions regarding the Website

    A: Functionality

  • I'm having trouble playing audio files



  • Shipping Questions

    Why didn't I receive an e-mail confirmation about my order?

    There are several reasons why this may happen. One of the most common is that your server rejects the message, regarding it as spam. Another possibility is that it did make it to your computer but might be sitting in your junk folder. If this is a constant problem, one solution would be to copy our e-mail address and place it in your address book. If your e-mail program allows you to set up individual mail boxes for specified users, or filters to automatically place mail from certain addresses into specified boxes, you might direct all mail sent from us to one of them.

    How long will it take my order to arrive?

    There are several answers to this question all depending on which shipping method you choose. In the U.S. most of our orders are sent via the USPS (U.S. Postal Service) Or UPS (United Parcel Service) and the amount of in-transit time depends on how far you are from our shipping location in Cincinnati. For standard shipping (UPS Ground, USPS First Class or Priority Mail) States bordering Ohio - Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, West Virginia - usually receive packages within one or two days. California and other Western States can take up to a week or 10 days. However nothing is guaranteed. Everything depends on how busy both services are and the weather. Holiday seasons are of course the busiest. If you've got to have your order quickly the best thing is to use one of the faster services, which of course adds considerable cost to the shipping charge:

    1: UPS Next Day Air - (adds an additional $40.00 - $70.00 to the shipping charges)
    2: UPS 2nd Day Air - (adds an additional $30.00 - 50.00 to the shipping charges)
    3: UPS 3 Day Select - (adds an additional $15.00 - $30.00 to the shipping charges)

    I was charged an additional shipping charge for an incorrect address a month after I received my order at the correct address!

    If you are charged for an incorrect address it is because we were charged by UPS or FedEx. This happens when something was incorrect or left out of the address that you sent us. A simple mistake, even if the UPS or FedEx driver knows your house, will trigger a charge to us which we then pass on to you. Is the street address and zip code exactly right? Did you include your apartment number? The USPS will return a package to us even if the address is correct if your apartment number is incorrect or missing. There really is a good reason for you to check everything before you hit the submit button. For more information on this annoying subject click here. Check the Liben Online Order Invoice that we sent you when we shipped the order. The address that we sent your order to - which you typed into our shopping cart - is listed down toward the bottom of the e-mail.

    I live in Alaska (Hawaii, Puerto Rico). Why were my shipping charges higher than your usual domestic rates?

    The rates to these locations are higher than in the continental U.S. UPS, FedEx and the USPS all charge according to the weight of the package, your Zip Code and the speed of the service. In just about all cases faster service is more costly.

    I ordered only one item. Why were my shipping charges so high?

    Ordering one item at a time is the least cost effective method of ordering for both you and us. We actually lose money on these kind of transactions when you consider that those shipping charges have to pay for not only the envelopes and postage (or UPS or FedEx charges), but the fees that the bank and credit card companies charge us for each transaction. Ordering 1 piece of music for $17.00 or $18.00 is not the same as buying a $500.00 piece of electronic gear where it is a lot easier for the seller to offer free or reduced shipping. For more on this click here.

    What happened to my music? I ordered it xxx weeks ago.

    A: Domestic: Check your address on the E-mail confirmation that we sent to you. Is it correct? If it isn't, contact us, making sure that you include the date and order number with your message. A wrong address in the confirmation E-mail means that the error is your responsibility since it is what you typed into our shopping cart. For more on this problem click here. If the address is correct, we are responsible, but please read on . . .

    Did you order from your school or university to be shipped to a box number or special department? If this is the case, please check the various points at which mail is received and held for you. Many times packages get caught up in the system, managing to sit around in an office or other location before than finding their way to the intended mail box.
    Did you order from home? We ship via UPS (United Parcel Service) and USPS (U.S. Postal Service). If your order was shipped via UPS and no one was there to accept the package the chances are that a note was left informing you that UPS will make another delivery attempt. You might also try a neighbor. Sometimes the UPS driver will leave a package next door if you are known to him. In the case of the USPS, it is possible that your mail box wasn't big enough to accomodate the package. If no one was there to accept the package a delivery attempt notice is usually left. You should also try your local post office to see if the package is sitting there.

    B: International: Every country has a different set of rules regarding imported goods. We have found that a good percentage of the time orders simply sit in local post offices because the package has to be signed for and the customer might not have been home when delivery was attempted. Another location where the package might be sitting is at your local customs office. In some countries, customs offices and post offices notify recipients that there is a package waiting for them to pick up, but this isn't always the case. If you feel that your order should have arrived days or weeks ago please try your local post and/or customs office. There may be a nice surprise waiting for you!

    I was not home when my order arrived and it was returned to Liben. I was then charged again for shipping when it was sent to me a second time!

    The postal services in different countries have different rules regarding how they treat international mail deliveries. Some will leave packages the same way they leave domestic ones. Others require someone to be present and sign for the delivery. When we ship an international package we always alert the recipient: "Please make sure that someone is at your address to receive and sign for the package." We also provide a tracking number so you can monitor the progress of your order. It is impossible for us to know exactly when your package will be delivered. It is your responsibility to make sure that someone is available to receive the package. In most countries the postal and/or customs service will leave a notice the first time they attempt to deliver a package and no one is available to receive it. When we receive a returned package we notify the person who originally placed the order, using the email address that they provided, that the package was returned. We will then reship the package and charge the same credit card for the shipping charges.

    What International Shipping classes do you use?

    For small orders - one or two items - if you do not specify any shipping preference, we ship via "First Class International." It is the least expensive method, but it also takes the longest time to get to you. Once an order gets above 4 lbs (1.8 Kilos) we must move to another category. Again, if nothing is specified we will use "Priority Mail International." It is more costly than "First Class International" but it is quicker. Weight limits are not usually a factor with music. But in case you're a dealer or distributor placing a large order, you'll be interested to know that 70 lbs (31.75 Kilos) is as much as any package may contain.

    Shipping Speed.

    If you need your order really fast there are several excellent shipping methods that will make sure it arrives within a day or two. But be warned, the age-old formula more speed = more $$$s comes into play very quickly! For more information click here.

    What is the best way to ship to Canada?

    We ship to Canada via the USPS or UPS. The method usually depends on the shipping speed, value of the package and location in the country. If you have a particluar preference please indicate it in the comments box when placing your order. Also Click here

    Why were my shipping charges so high?

    Shipping and Handling Charges on International orders are higher because those orders not only require more work to process, (customs, insurance forms, more detailed information for the USPS, etc.) but are also subject to higher credit card bank fees. Since the amount that we charge for our editions is the same for both domestic (U.S.) and International orders, those higher costs have to come from somewhere. Rather than have 2 different pricing tiers for each printed edition, CD and DVD, that somewhere is in the Shipping and Handling Charges.

    If your order consists of only one item it is possible for your shipping charges to actually be more than the edition itself! A solution to this problem is to combine as many items as you think you will be wanting into a single order.

    Cost Saving hints:

    If you are a student majoring in music and have to order one of our editions for study and performance it is possible that there might be others at your school doing the same. It is also possible that another student might need something from our catalog during the same semester as yourself. Your teacher may be helpful in suggesting someone that might be working on the same piece as you or something else that we publish. If this is the case, you could combine your orders. Most of the time ordering 2 pieces having similar weights will cost the same as ordering just one.

    We ship internationally to many teachers who order multiple copies of our most popular items for their students. The shipping cost savings in these cases is enormous. Check with your teacher to see if he/she is involved with something similar.

    Also click here.

    Why can't I have my packages sent via sea mail instead of air? Isn't it much less expensive?

    The U.S. Postal Service stopped offering sea (surface) mail in 2007. They also stopped offering lower rates for printed matter - which includes music. Everything now goes by air.

    How can I save on shipping charges?

    The best way to save on shipping costs is to try and combine all the items that you think you'll be wanting into a single order. Ordering one edition and then ordering something else a week or two later is a sure way to spend more than you should on shipping. If you think you'll be wanting that CD that has the piece that you're ordering today, you'll save at least 50% of its cost by ordering it along with the music in one order. Another way to save is to stay away from the express services. They are very convenient and extremely reliable but very costly too. Also click here.

    The Total Charges on my order did not match the amount my Credit Card was billed.

    If you placed a Domestic Order and live or ship to the state of Ohio (where we are located) you probably forgot to check "CLICK HERE if you are a resident of Ohio." Ohio State Sales Taxes are added to these orders.

    If you placed an International Order you probably forgot to check "CLICK HERE if you are an International Customer." In any event shipping, charges to locations outside of the U.S. are added to orders after they are processed. Unfortunately our Shopping Cart is not sophisticated enough to calculate the various weights, values and customs and packing regulations to the many countries that we ship to.

    Why do you require registered mail to ship to my country? It is so expensive!

    In some countries mail deliveries are not as reliable as we would all like. Registering a package, which requires tracking and requires signatures, usually helps. However it does add a considerable amount to the cost. For some tips on how you can save on those orders click here.

    Why don't you ship to my country?

    Alas, there are some places on the planet that even registered mail won't help! There are all sorts of reasons for this from political to civil unrest. Far too much to go into here.

    How are customs fees and taxes handled? Do you take care of them?

    While we are obliged to fill out all of the forms required by U.S. Customs, we can not take care of customs fees or any duties or taxes required by your own country. This is something we have no control over. In some countries the recipient is required to go to their local post office or customs office to pick up the package. In others it's taken care of at the door by the mail carrier or the UPS driver, sometimes with varying fees. As to which shipping method to use: Since every country has its own set of customs rules and regulations, you are the best judge of which method to use. So if you have a particular request please be sure to indicate it in the comments box when making your order. Otherwise we'll choose what we think is the safest and fastest method.

    How to pay 3, 4 or even 5 times the list price for a single piece of music.

    We have found that many of our customers are quite skillful at managing to pay as much as 5, 6 or 7 times the catalog price for one piece of music. In fact for some, figuring out how to spend as much as possible for one edition seems to have become an art in itself. The methods vary among different individuals but there are a few traits that appear frequently enough to warrant mention and/or comment. If one wished to participate in this activity the following should help you to at least get started:
    1: If you need a particular piece of music for a contest, jury examination or similar event, you should wait until a few days before you need the music in hand to order it.
    2: When you order the music, you should include a question in the comments field relating to how long it will take for the order to reach its intended recipient. After you receive our we don't know, it depends on . . . reply you should wait at least a couple of days before answering and then ask how much it would cost for one of the faster shipping services. After we answer that query another wait of at least 2 days would be in order followed by placing the order instructing us to send it next day air. If you're really skillful you'll do this on a Thursday or Friday, demanding that the music arrive on Saturday. That'll add another $10.00 - $15.00 to the bottom line.

    Of course international customers have the advantage in this game since shipping charges to destinations outside the U.S. are generally higher and express services are much higher. For those interested in such matters the current record is held by a gentleman in Japan who absolutely had to have a copy of the Dragonetti Concerto ($18.00 at the time) in 2 days. Total cost with shipping: $114.25. Many attempts have been made to eclipse this record including quite a few extremely creative domestic bids, but for now it is still the gold standard!

    How to be both fashionable and guarantee that your package will take longer than necessary to arrive.

    A great method to insure that your order takes a bit more time than necessary to reach you is to type everything in the order form - name, address, city, etc. - in lower case characters. Getting that little finger to hold down the shift key for the first letter of your name or city is oh so eighties isn't it. This works especially well if you have a particularly complex name, perhaps one that looks kind of like it might be the name of a street, park or sports stadium. Something like Cherimoyas Pineapple on East Melodie Lane. If you type cherimoyas pineapple and east melodie lane, it takes just a little extra time for us to figure out exactly what goes where, resulting in the order getting dumped into a waiting queue until we can take the extra time to make sure it's correct. The point is; if someone at our office has to retype all or part of your address it not only takes longer to process your order, but introduces the possibility of an address error, which may delay it for weeks, depending on where you're located and what rules your local postal service follows.

    If you live in an apartment complex and neglect to add your apartment number you'll also be eligible to have your credit card billed for the extra charge that UPS bills us for an incomplete address.

    I received the wrong music. (or DVD or CD) Can I return it?

    If we sent you a wrong item send us an email mentioning the order number and date. Better still, copy the email that we sent to you when we shipped your order and paste it to the bottom of your message. If we made an error we'll get the correct item out to you as soon as possible. But please be aware of the following:

    CDs and DVDs may only be returned if they have not been opened. This includes even those that we may have sent in error. So be sure not to open the shrink wrap if we sent the wrong disc.

    Music is returnable only if what we sent to you was incorrect.

    Music, CDs and DVDs that are damaged may be exchanged for the exact same items.

    Occasionally, due to extenuating circumstances, we will accept an item for return that does not meet the above requirements. In these cases we deduct a 30% restocking fee and the original shipping charges. Any items returned under these circumstances must be in their original - new - condition.


    Paying for Orders

    What credit cards do you accept?

    We accept Visa and MasterCard.

    Why was my credit card declined?

    Your credit card can be declined for various reasons. the most common reason is that you may have reached the limit on how much you may spend. Once you have reached your limit you usually may not charge any more on that card until you pay off the balance. When we receive an order we must get an approval number in order to charge your card. If your bank does not provide us with one we cannot accept your order. Paying down your balance regularly each month will help you to maintain a good credit rating and at the same time save you the costs associated with high interest rates.

    I am an International customer: The total for my order was $50.00.* Why did my bank charge me $65.00*? (*These amounts are used as examples)

    When we receive an international order we must first check the card to confirm that it is valid and there are enough funds in your account to pay for it. To do this we have to reserve funds from that account.

    Reserving Funds, also known as holding funds, means that we contact your bank to inform them that we will shortly be charging your credit card a certain amount for a purchase that you are making from us. If there are enough funds in your account to cover the transaction, the bank puts those funds aside for a short period of time so we can complete the transaction. (The exact amount of time depends on the policy of each individual bank.) The bank then sends us an approval code that tells us: 1: your account has the necessary funds to cover the transaction, and 2: we have permission to charge your card up to the amount that we have reserved. Since we do not know the exact amount of your order until all the shipping and handling charges are figured we have to estimate what the cost of the order will be. Sometimes this is easy but not always. We always overestimate what the charge will be because when we finalize the order we can only charge up to the amount that we have reserved - not more.

    When we do finalize your order (get an approval code from the bank) it will always be for a lesser amount than what we had reserved. The amount that we actually charge your card will be for the exact amount that appears in the email that is sent to you when your order is shipped. The remainder of the reserved funds remain in your account.

    A related question may be: "Why don't you figure out all of the shipping and handling charges before you reserve the funds?" The reason for this is because it saves us time since we don't process the order until we know that it is approved.

    More information, including various methods and policies that individual banks use to determine how long reserved funds are held can be found here and here and here.


    Questions regarding Various editions

    What happened to (fill in the space)? I can't find it in your catalog anymore!

    The first thing you might do is to check our Out Of Print Editions list. If you find it listed you'll know that the edition is no longer available. If it is not on the list and you still can't find it anywhere in the catalog you can drop us a line using our contact form. It's possible that the out of print edition just didn't make it on to the list or for some other reason it is not listed in the catalog. In either event we'd appreciate knowing about it.

    Why is (fill in the space) out of print? It's a great piece and should be available.

    An edition usually goes out of print for one reason: It stops selling. When the current supply is exhausted it doesn't make sense to invest in a (costly) reprint of even a great piece if so few are willing to purchase it.

    Today, and for the past 30 years or so, the primary reason many worthy editions do not make the reprint list fail to do so because of the rampant use of the photo-copy machine. It is very tempting to make a quick copy of a piece rather than ordering a real copy from a music store or publisher. Who can argue with Free? But many are finding that Free can be very expensive when the real costs are tabulated. For us in the classical music field (including performers, teachers, students and audience) the cost of Free is quickly causing much of what we cherish to disappear.

    Of course a popular retort (from the guilty?) is to involk the tired old chicken-or-the-egg question: Is it alright to photocopy if it's out of print? Or maybe: Is it alright to force it out of print so we can photocopy? For more information on this timely subject click here.

    B: Recording (CDs, DVDs)

    I would like to record one of your pieces. What do I have to do?

    If you are making an audio-only CD you need to fill out a Mechanical License. For a DVD (video) you'll need to fill out a Synchronization License. Both of these forms are located here.

    C: More Exotic Stuff

    What's all this business about Solo and Orchestra Tuning?

    The Double Bass has suffered a host of different tunings over the past 300 years. For the past 100 years or so two tunings have remained in constant use:

    1: Orchestra Tuning. E, A, D, G (from lowest to highest). This is the main, or standard tuning for all orchestral music, most chamber music and just about any kind of popular, jazz or ethnic music. Notes written below E – down to a low C or B – are usually handled either by a fifth string, a mechanical device – commonly referred to as a machine by bassists, or a wooden fingerboard extension.

    2: Solo Tuning. F sharp, B, E, A (from lowest to highest). This tuning is often used by soloists when performing solo works – concertos, etc. - especially with orchestra. It usually helps the solo bass to achieve a brighter, more penetrating sound especially in the upper registers.

    A simpler way to think of this is:

    Orchestra Tuning = Solo double bass in the key of C.
    Solo Tuning = Solo double bass in the key of D

    If you're a bassist you probably know all of the above. If you're not and are ordering music for a bassist, it would be best to check with with them to make sure which tuning they prefer. Most of our editions that are written for bass and piano are playable in both tunings. With very few exceptions these editions come standard with an orchestra tuning piano part. Solo tuning piano parts are available separately.


    Why don't some of the printed music samples match the actual layout of the editions themselves?

    The printed music sample pages are to show mainly what is in the music - what the music is about, the level of difficulty, etc. Some of the samples are exact copies of the printed edition while others show the music in score format or perhaps the solo instrument together with the piano part. With music that is unfamiliar it can be more helpful to see more than one part to get a feel for the type of piece one is perusing.

    For more discussion on this subject, please continue to the next question . . .

    Why are some Duos available in score form and others as separate parts?

    There are several reasons for this. Ideally every edition should contain both a score and a set of parts. However the problem of costs must be considered. Printing a score and set of parts can almost double the cost of an edition. The practice of printing both and selling them separately seems like a good idea. The customer can then have the option of buying both or only one. The problem here is that so few people actually purchase scores that for us to have them printed (especially in low quantities) is very impracticable.

    While there is no doubt that a score is great for study, playing from one can be another matter. The 900 pound gorilla in this part of the room (hall) is the matter of page turns. Music written for only two players tends to have very few measures rest. And the rule of thumb seems to be that those empty bars are never where the engraver or typesetter would like them to be! With a single line it's at least possible to play around and find a spot where one player can turn while the other is playing and vice versa. But finding a place where both players are able to turn can be a rarity.

    So what is the solution? What do we publishers composers and engravers do to get around the problem? Well some do nothing, allowing the music to fall wherever it likes onto the page letting the musicians figure out how to deal with the (bad) turns. So, left to their own devices, players photocopy pages and string them out along 2 or 3 music stands, or figure out another clever way around this age-old problem. Not elegant at all, but sometimes unavoidable.

    A more common, and much more practical solution is to publish repertoire that is easier to perform without it being absolutely necessary to have both lines always in view, as a parts only edition. Music that moves along at a mostly steady tempo works fine in this situation. Most older music fits into this category as do many newer pieces that adhear to similar practices.

    On the other side of the coin, works that are very complex rhythmically, with many tempo adjustments, rubatos, avant-garde techniques and the like, work best in score format. Of course in this case the trade-off is that these editions will occupy many more pages, which means not only a bigger challange to find practical turns, but in the end, an edition that can be considerably more expensive than a comprable one that consiststs of parts only.

    Liben uses page layout arrangements similar to that of most contemporary publishers. We use both score for both players and parts only methods. Which approach depends on the music itself. You'll see both methods throughout our catalog. Our objective is to do what we can to help the players realize as good a performance as possible.


    Questions regarding Orchestra Rentals

    How do I order the score and parts for one of your orchestral works?

    You will need to fill out our Music Rental Form. Click here for more information.

    How do I order a perusal score for a work my orchestra is considering for performance?

    Fill out our contact form requesting the scores that you would like to review. The request must be made by a representative of the orchestra: Librarian, Manager, Conductor, etc. For established, ASCAP licensed orchestras in the U.S. we will send materials for a 30-day review.

    For orchestras located outside of the U.S. We will send the materials that you request for a 60-day - portal to portal - review. We require a valid credit card number and expiration date (Visa or MasterCard) for this service. We will reserve funds on the card equal to the value of the materials plus the shipping/handling costs. When all the materials are returned we will bill the card for shipping/handling costs plus a small service charge. If your orchestra decides to proceed with the rental, the service charge will be deducted from the cost of the final invoice. Please note: All materials must be returned to us within 60 days to avoid additional charges.

    How do you ship perusal scores?

    We ship via UPS or the USPS depending on the location and shipping speed required.


    Questions regarding the Website

    I'm having trouble playing audio files.

    To hear the audio files of music from our orchestra and chamber music catalogs you must be using a browser that supports the HTML5 audio element. HTML5 is gradually replacing the Adobe Flash plugin. If you get the on-screen message: Your browser does not support the audio element. Click Here for Help - it means that your browser does not support at least some attributes of HTML5.

    HTML5 currently (mid 2012) is still in the development stage and not all Internet browsers do an equal job when it comes to implementing the current set of attributes. Most browser publishers claim support for the HTML5 audio tag, but the reality is that it's frequently a hit or miss situation. We have tested all of the major browsers and have found that the most consistently reliable, at least for the present, are Google Chrome and Apple Safari on both the Windows and Mac platforms. Microsoft Internet Explorer also does a good job especially with the latest version of Windows. We urge you to give these browsers a try as all are free, very fast, easy-to-use and can be downloaded quickly and safely from the following locations:

  • Google Chrome: for Mac OS X Snow Leopard or later.
  • Google Chrome: for Windows 7, Vista and XP.
  • Apple Safari: for Mac OS X Snow Leopard or later.
  • Apple Safari: for Windows 7, Vista and XP.
  • Microsoft Internet Explorer: for Windows 8.

    Currently two other popular browsers: Mozilla Firefox and Opera do not offer acceptable HTML5 support. However things change rapidly, so if you enjoy these browsers it would be wise to check periodically for their latest versions.
  • Audio files normally start up automatically once they load. Loading times depend on your connection speed, which can range from 2 or 3 seconds to Let's-step-out-for-a-cup-of-coffee. If you're viewing/listening on an iPad or iPhone you'll see a play icon in the upper left hand side of the screen. Touch the icon to start the file playing. Andriod Tablets and Smart Phones that support HTML5 may require a plug-in to work. Check the requirements of your particular model for compatibility.